I find the biggest issue in most cultures for Racism is knowledge and Media.
Most of the people I have met which are racist, have never spent any time with the people they are so against, or they get their views from Friends/Family. Not everybody in this situation are racist but the below about the media will cause it.
The media has brought the Race card out so many times in the programming to drum up numbers its not funny. They report on the non important issues and report that is because of race. This breads hatred on the other side. If a white guy gets shot by a black, its because he was white, which it probably wasn't, this will cause the whites to dislike the blacks, then they report the opposite. After a while people are shooting each other because of race and it is because the media bread the hatred.
Ignorance is not racism, but ignorance causes racism. If the USA or any other county wants to work on their Racism they need to work on the ignorance. Start teaching culture in school, increase funding in schools. Then start doing studies on the media and its affect towards racism and education. Push this.
As for whoever wrote about the living standards of the Aboriginals in Australia. That is not Racism, it is the inability of the people to work towards having a better standard of living. There is Racism towards them but it is not causing their living standards issue.