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[FAQ] Linux File System Overview


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#46 vetStephen

Stephen

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  • Location: Manchester / Huddersfield, UK

Posted 01 January 2007 - 22:58

cool thanks ive been meaning to read up on this


#47 nilsHaus

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Posted 01 May 2007 - 22:55

A graphical example layout would probably be helpful, I'll make one when I understand it myself (which I more or less do, except for the no top-level hard drive thing. What is the utmost highest level?)

and, ****, I'd hoped I'd be able to get rid of the annoying 'all users' 'username' program folders nonsense. What if you're the only one using your computer, all the time, and are kind of a neatfreak to boot? Whatevs

Thanks for info.

#48 OP vetmarkjensen

markjensen

    Linux noob since Red Hat 5.1

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Posted 02 May 2007 - 03:10

A graphical example layout would probably be helpful, I'll make one when I understand it myself (which I more or less do, except for the no top-level hard drive thing. What is the utmost highest level?)

and, ****, I'd hoped I'd be able to get rid of the annoying 'all users' 'username' program folders nonsense. What if you're the only one using your computer, all the time, and are kind of a neatfreak to boot? Whatevs

Thanks for info.

Graphics would be nice! :yes:

As far as top level, that is the root, or "/". You can attach (mount) hard drive, networked drives and anything else to locations in the regular filesystem.

And, *nix OSes have been multi-user for a very long time, so the foundation to separate users is a fundamental part of the OS design. You can, however, run as root if you like, and symlink your bin directories to one common spot, if you like. However, if you ever do want to set up (for testing, or what-not) an additional user account, you kinda just screwed yourself and made things a bit more complex by doing by it that way.


EDIT: A few filesystem graphics for you to get ideas from, for starters can be found using Google Image.

Edited by markjensen, 02 May 2007 - 03:12.


#49 Glowstick

Glowstick

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Posted 06 May 2007 - 11:27

Well, I don't know how things are the Linux way, but if you're intending to use multiple disks, consider using a volume manager. LVM or what it is in Linux. It treats all added disks as one large logical volume. I think that's preferable over mounting different drives in a specific locations and play the remaining disk space game for each of those mounts. Instead, set up your system as you want, and when you run out of space, put disk into the computer, add it to the LVM and grow the filesystem running out of space.

Myself I've been spoiled by ZFS and don't want to miss it (Solaris user). I guess under Linux, putting at least your home folders on ZFS/FUSE may be an option if it becomes stable in future, since those will be the ones growing out of proportions while the rest staying more or less stable.

Here, it currently looks like this:
root@bigmclargehuge:~ > zpool status
  pool: tank
 state: ONLINE
 scrub: none requested
config:

		NAME		STATE	 READ WRITE CKSUM
		tank		ONLINE	   0	 0	 0
		  c3d0s7	ONLINE	   0	 0	 0
		  c0d0s1	ONLINE	   0	 0	 0

errors: No known data errors
root@bigmclargehuge:~ > zpool list
NAME					SIZE	USED   AVAIL	CAP  HEALTH	 ALTROOT
tank					293G   68.9G	224G	23%  ONLINE	 -
root@bigmclargehuge:~ > zfs list  
NAME						 USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT
tank						68.9G   219G  8.03M  /tank
tank/home				   65.5G   219G	21K  /export/home
tank/home/root			   336K   219G   336K  /export/home/root
tank/home/servo			 65.5G   219G  1003M  /export/home/servo
tank/home/servo/Documents   1.12G   219G  1.12G  /export/home/servo/Documents
tank/home/servo/LargeFiles  11.3G   219G  11.3G  /export/home/servo/LargeFiles
tank/home/servo/Music	   2.74G   219G  2.74G  /export/home/servo/Music
tank/home/servo/Pictures	1.10G   219G  1.10G  /export/home/servo/Pictures
tank/home/servo/Video	   48.3G   219G  48.3G  /export/home/servo/Video
tank/opt					 448M   219G   448M  legacy
tank/usr					2.87G   219G  2.87G  legacy
tank/var					82.0M   219G  82.0M  legacy
root@bigmclargehuge:~ >


#50 rockwolf

rockwolf

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  • Joined: 25-November 05

Posted 26 June 2007 - 21:10

"http://www.micronux....?articles_id=6" is a dead link, you should get rid of it

#51 OP vetmarkjensen

markjensen

    Linux noob since Red Hat 5.1

  • Joined: 02-October 03
  • Location: Middle Tennessee
  • OS: GNU/Linux
  • Phone: Android and iPhone

Posted 27 June 2007 - 01:19

"http://www.micronux....?articles_id=6" is a dead link, you should get rid of it

Thanks. Replaced link with copy of page from archive.org (Y)

#52 Angel Blue01

Angel Blue01

    Neowinian/Star Wars freak

  • Joined: 19-October 01
  • Location: Win95ville, USA

Posted 07 July 2007 - 13:03

Thank you for this thread! I just installed openSUSE 10.2 on a dual boot with Vista and I was wondering about the directory structure (perhaps a better term than file system in this case) works.

Why does root have exclusive access to so many directories in / ?

Why did the installer mount my NTFS Windows partition to /windows/C instead of /mnt/windows/C? This may be a distro thing

#53 d3m0nb0y

d3m0nb0y

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  • Joined: 11-November 08

Posted 21 November 2008 - 12:48

"This Linux file system is crazy..."

This FAQ is a quick overview that I have written to summarize how the files are generally organized into their directories. I have often described this, in the past, as looking at a vertical vs. horizontal method of determining where different files should be placed. :blink: However, that doesn't really clear things up for 99% of the people I have tried to describe this to, so I will attempt to better explain this here. I will cover the file & directory organization in very broad brush strokes. For more detailed information, there are thousands of in-depth resources to be found with a brief google. Most Linux books cover this as well (but are often skipped as they aren't readily understood by most people who haven't worked with Linux for a while).


Awesome post, gave me greater insight to Linux.

#54 -Vivicidal-

-Vivicidal-

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  • Location: UK, EU

Posted 16 December 2008 - 19:20

All I can say is thank you. THis really clears up some questions I had and has rekindled my love of Linux.



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