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International Space Station (Updates)

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Draggendrop    5,747

On the 3rd of June, 1965, at 2:34 EDT, ED White, aboard Gemini IV, performed America's first EVA. Ed white and Jim McDivitt spent 4 days in space. A station keeping exercise with the Titan  was cancelled due to navigation issues, therefore, the EVA was next. Then they had hatch problems, but eventually he got out. 35 minutes between hatch opening and closing. He used a compressed air gun for manoeuvring but ran out of propellant 5 mins into the EVA. The rest of the time way spent moving by the tether and trying to not get covered in hypergolic thruster fuel.

 

50 year anniversary of America's first EVA.

 

post-546174-0-60069400-1433121056.jpg

 

http://www.americaspace.com/?p=61146#more-61146

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Draggendrop    5,747

The first EVA was done by Voskhod 2 mission on 18th March 1965 by Alexei Leonov. Hatch problems caused 12 minutes of struggling to get back in. The walk was outside normal radio range but a secondary receiver picked up the television broadcast. This flight was notable with re-entry problems which took rescue crews hours to get to the capsule.

 

post-546174-0-10987800-1433122182.gif

 

Mission data links....

 

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-022A

 

http://www.svengrahn.pp.se/histind/Voskhod2/Voskhod2.htm

 

List of EVA"s in order....wiki....

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_spacewalkers

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Arachno 1D    7,992

Interesting answer Draggendrop much appreciated so just to entend that to a large structure like the ISS or say the planned interplanetary craft.How does it cope with the temperature differentials across or around the craft without distorting/warping the structure or would one possibly rely on continually rotating the structure to gain even heat values?

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DocM    16,615

Reflective surfaces and moving heat to a black body radiator (which doesn't have to be black in color.) Dragon has its radiators in walls of the Trunk. Moving heat can be done passively, by pump circulated fluids or heat pipes.

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Draggendrop    5,747

Before I throw up a real "dry article" and since we are on "records".... :woot:

 

First "record" in space...  The "Golden Record" on board Voyager 1 and 2. A committee, with Carl Sagan, chose a selection of voice and sound to portray humanity to a future race via a playable record mounted as a plaque on the craft...1977

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voyager_Golden_Record

 

post-546174-0-46117100-1433199558.jpg

 

First "selfie" was by Buzz Aldrin in 1966....

 

post-546174-0-92875700-1433199681.jpg

 

and...last, but not least.....First "yard sale"....shuttle crew having fun...

 

post-546174-0-96096800-1433199785.jpg

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Draggendrop    5,747

Just to finish off the section for the ISS heating and cooling that we were discussing, thought I would throw this up before moving on. 

 

The biggest dilemma, as we discussed previously, was the slow heat transfer from a body to a vacuum via electromagnetic radiation. The ISS generates a lot of heat. The wires carrying current to devices dissipate heat as well as the devices, since no device is 100% efficient and the remainder of the energy is dissipated as heat. Equipment, humans and solar radiation generate heat which must be displaced quicker than ambient methods. The ISS itself is covered by reflective materials where possible and modules are encapsulated with MLI, multi layer insulation composed of advanced materials. Since the interior is a weightless environment, conditioned air is displaced by specially designed ducting. The interior uses pumped water, piping and heat exchangers, while the exterior uses a liquid ammonia heat exchange system. The inner system by itself cannot handle the full demand which is why the bigger computer controlled ammonia system is needed.Heat energy is passed from one system to the next and dumped via external, rotatable photovoltaic radiator panels, the ones under the ISS. The power generation units on the main trusses, which convert power from the solar arrays, also require temperature control from the outer loop. This outer loop also has heaters in case the ambient temperature comes too close to freezing the pumped liquid ammonia, which could freeze if left dormant for an extended length of time..ie..broken pump. 

 

Photovoltaic rotatable radiators on under side of ISS..

post-546174-0-20071400-1433201851.jpg

 

ISS Active cooling system overview...

post-546174-0-09042500-1433201959.jpg

 

Assorted quick articles on the ISS environmental control systems...

 

http://www.spaceflight101.com/space-station-encounters-thermal-control-system-failure.html

 

http://www.space.com/21059-space-station-cooling-system-explained-infographic.html

 

http://aviationweek.com/blog/nasa-troubleshoots-growing-iss-thermal-control-system-leak

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/External_Active_Thermal_Control_System

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Draggendrop    5,747

Famous Incident......(50th anniversary of the notorious space sandwich)

 

23 March, 1965...Gemini 3 was the first manned mission of the series with Gus Grissom and John White. During the 3 orbit test, they were to try the experiment of eating "space food"....which looked like this...

 

post-546174-0-56408800-1433205318.png

 

Not too appetizing, so Wally Chirra snuck out, got a corned beef on rye, and gave it to White, who snuck it into the capsule. Two hours into the mission, he brought out the sandwich, had a bite and crumbs were everywhere, so he put it back. The whole incident was an uproar, even making it to congress and security was tightened.

 

The food didn't get much better and on 14 November 1969, Apollo 12 was set to go. Security had relaxed a bit and, yes, another sandwich was brought in by stealth...here, this photo shows Pete Conrad having help with putting a sandwich in his pocket.  

 

post-546174-0-36052700-1433205915.jpg

 

When a man's gotta eat..a man's gotta eat...

 

The ISS has a great variety of food on board...check out the prior "tour" video's to see examples...

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Draggendrop    5,747

Last minute entry.....The AmericaSpace website is hosting several days of commemorative articles on space flight EVA's, including ISS. It is a top 10 listing and todays article is #10. The articles are a long read but chock full of difficult and dangerous settings...check out the link...Cheers...

 

http://www.americaspace.com/?p=81963#more-81963

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Arachno 1D    7,992

Certainly a interesting somewhat complicated set up and I bet it needs lots of maintenance time to keep the system running at peak efficiency.

I was watching a very intersting NASA broadcast yesterday of a press conference which gave an update on the inflatable dognut ring and parachute system to be used on Mars landers.It just shows how much work needs to go into systems before they are even deployed to ensure as near as possible 100% reliability especially in such hostile enviroments.

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Arachno 1D    7,992

I forgot to add anyone wanting to send a selfie into space on the 2016 LightSail mission refer to the link

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Draggendrop    5,747

Certainly a interesting somewhat complicated set up and I bet it needs lots of maintenance time to keep the system running at peak efficiency.

I was watching a very intersting NASA broadcast yesterday of a press conference which gave an update on the inflatable dognut ring and parachute system to be used on Mars landers.It just shows how much work needs to go into systems before they are even deployed to ensure as near as possible 100% reliability especially in such hostile enviroments.

That would be the LDSD, Low Density Supersonic Decelerator. The second flight test is 3rd June 2015, NET 1:30 EDT, bad weather today, and there is a one week window....

 

post-546174-0-66233700-1433257458.jpg

 

http://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/low-density-supersonic-decelerator-prepared-for-second-flight-test-0

 

http://www.popularmechanics.com/space/moon-mars/a14819/nasa-will-test-its-mars-flying-saucer-tomorrow/

 

http://www.nasa.gov/jpl/ldsd/you-get-to-watch-it-live-nasas-flying-saucer-test

 

 

The second flight test of NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) will be attempted on Tuesday, June 2 at no earlier than 1:30 p.m. EDT (7:30 a.m. HST), launching a rocket-powered, saucer-shaped test vehicle into near-space from the Pacific Missile Range Facility on the island of Kauai in Hawaii. The test launch window is from June 2-12. At launch time, a giant balloon will carry the test vehicle to an altitude of 120,000 feet (37,000 meters). After release from the balloon, a booster rocket will lift the disk-shaped vehicle to 180,000 feet (55,000 meters), during which it will accelerate to supersonic speeds. Traveling at about three times the speed of sound, the vehicle

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Arachno 1D    7,992

Yes its intersting to see the very inventive way they test such technology and how thinking out of the box does get good results.

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Draggendrop    5,747

Found a couple more photo's of the ISS's rotatable photovoltaic radiators....

 

post-546174-0-79712400-1433267402.jpg

 

post-546174-0-51522000-1433267425.jpg

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Draggendrop    5,747

The U.S. NAVY has acquired a patent for a device which can locate and track trajectories of orbital debris....

 

 

The device concept is the creation of a continuous, permanent light sheet by using a collimated light source, such as a low-power laser. All particles intersecting the light sheet will scatter the light from the source, independent of the time of intersection with the plane of the light sheet.

"When the flight path of an orbital debris object intersects the light sheet, the object will scatter the light, and a portion of that scattered light can be detected by a wide angle camera," said Dr. Christoph Englert, research physicist at NRL. "The knowledge of the light sheet geometry and the angles of the scattering event with respect to the camera, derived from the signal location on the sensor, allow the determination of the intersection point, and possibly even size, and shape information about the debris particle.

 

http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Patent_for_Navy_small_space_debris_tracker_999.html

 

We presently have a shared network of organizations such as NASA, U.S. Military branches and ESA which collect data and apply it to Orbital Debris Mitigation software for tracking as many objects as possible. It is estimated that as much as half a million pieces of debris are zipping around the planet at an approximate average speed of 11Kps with some debris speed upward of 70 Kps. We presently have ground support as well as satellite tracking but the small stuff is tough to analyse...which is why this step would be beneficial....

 

Samples of micro meteorite and debris damage...

 

post-546174-0-04492800-1433268537.jpg

 

Shuttle STS7 windsheild hit...

post-546174-0-38375500-1433268565.jpg

 

Shuttle STS118 debris hit

post-546174-0-87192800-1433268579.jpg

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Draggendrop    5,747

MMOD...micro meteoroid orbital debris...see above post...has been a real danger to satellites and spacecraft. The past shuttle and the present ISS has had to carry out orbital changes on many occasions to avoid debris. The real problem is very small particals of debris which can be anything from a meteoroid to paint chips or frozen water particles. The high velocities can do a lot of damage and this is why some protection mechanisms are placed on orbital craft.

 

On the ISS, over 100 whipple sheilds are used. They are a multiple layered structure with  gaps such as outer walls on the space station. When a particle hits the outer wall, the impact will do a lot of damage but have it's kinetic energy dissipated to lessen the damage on the next layer....

 

post-546174-0-18537200-1433270016.jpg

 

post-546174-0-76070200-1433270042.jpg

 

post-546174-0-87828900-1433270064.jpg

 

http://orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/protect/shielding.html

 

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/news/orbital_debris.html

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whipple_shield

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_debris

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Draggendrop    5,747

Here is another recent article about "space mining" start-up for hopefully 2020....BUT....we can't just go blasting away, get the goods and leave....Again, we have a new non renewable resource...called uncluttered space...

 

WE don't need this...

post-546174-0-84665500-1433275366.jpg

 

 

IF THE gold mine is too far from home, why not move it nearby? It sounds like a fantasy, but would-be miners are already dreaming up ways to drag resource-rich space rocks closer to home. Trouble is, that could threaten the web of satellites around Earth.

Asteroids are not only stepping stones for cosmic colonisation, but may contain metals like gold, platinum, iron and titanium, plus life-sustaining hydrogen and oxygen, and rocket-fuelling ammonia. Space age forty-niners can either try to work an asteroid where it is, or tug it into a more convenient orbit.

NASA chose the second option for its Asteroid Redirect Mission, which aims topluck a boulder from an asteroid's surface and relocate it to a stable orbit around the moon. But an asteroid's gravity is so weak that it's not hard for surface particles to escape into space. Now a new model warns that debris shed by such transplanted rocks could intrude where many defence and communication satellites live

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Arachno 1D    7,992

Just a thought but you could capture the asteroids and deposit/crash them on the Moon that way it would be on a stable surface for mining.

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DocM    16,615

Just a thought but you could capture the asteroids and deposit/crash them on the Moon that way it would be on a stable surface for mining.

Crashing them would disperse their most valuable resource: volatiles, including methane and water. It's easier to place a small asteroid inside of a kevlar bag, heat it (solar concentrator) and collect the boiled off vapors for separation and use. One "dry" extract carbon (chondrites are loaded with it), silicates and metals robotically.

For large asteroids crashing them on the Moon runs the risk of a large chunk being tossed at Earth and causing damage.

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Draggendrop    5,747

NASA ISS On Orbit June 2015 Status Report

 

Updates on experiments... (Very long list in article...busy bee's)

Fluid shifts

Satellite repairs 

Flames in zero G

Microbiome

Sleep analysis

and station repairs...good video and article...

 

http://spaceref.com/international-space-station/nasa-iss-on-orbit-status-1-june-2015.html

 

 

Cooling repairs to begin shortly...

 

 

 

Fan Pump Separator Remove and Replace (R&R) Preparation: As a result of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) 3010 inability to establish sufficient cooling water flow during last week's maintenance, an FPS R&R is scheduled for Wednesday and Thursday of this week. Today, Virts and Cristoforetti performed a detailed review of the R&R procedure and conducted a conference with ground specialists. The crew also gathered and configured tools in preparation for the R&R.

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Draggendrop    5,747

As mentioned, a short section on spacesuits is in order.....and just to start....the first "real" spacesuit used in space was a Soviet SK-1, in 1961, by a space pioneer...Yuri Gagarin

 

There are 3 suit classifications and to save typing.....

 

 

 

Three types of spacesuits exist for different purposes: IVA (intravehicular activity), EVA (extravehicular activity), and IEVA (intra/extravehicular activity). IVA suits are meant to be worn inside a pressurized spacecraft, and are therefore lighter and more comfortable. IEVA suits are meant for use inside and outside the spacecraft, such as the Gemini G4C suit. They include more protection from the harsh conditions of space, such as protection from micrometeorites and extreme temperature change. EVA suits, such as the EMU are used for outside of spacecraft, for either planetary exploration or spacewalks. They must protect the wearer against all conditions of space, as well as provide mobility and functionality.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_suit

 

The EMU is the most widely recognized suit, and should be as it has been around since 1981....

 

 

 

The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is an independent anthropomorphic spacesuit that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications for astronauts performing extra-vehicular activity (EVA) in Earth orbit. Introduced in 1981, it is a two-piece semi-rigid suit, and is currently one of two EVA spacesuits used by crew members on the International Space Station (ISS), the other being the Russian Orlan space suit. It was used by NASA's Space Shuttle astronauts prior to the end of the Shuttle program in 2011.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extravehicular_Mobility_Unit

 

EMU EVA STS-118

post-546174-0-46724100-1433290542.jpg

 

The ISS also uses the Russian Orlan M series, also a veteran suit...

ISS-11, Phillips EVA

post-546174-0-42561900-1433290749.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlan_space_suit

 

We will focus on the EMU.....Specs are.....

 

 

Specifications[edit] Baseline EMU[edit]

Manufacturer: ILC Dover (suit) and Hamilton Standard (primary life support systems)[1]

Missions: STS-6 (1983) to STS-110 (2002)[1]

Function: orbital extra-vehicular activity[1]

Operating pressure: 4.3 psi (29.6 kPa)[1]

EVA suit weight: 109 lb (49.4 kg)[1]

Total shuttle EVA suit weight: 254 lb (115 kg)[1]

Primary life support: 8 hours (480 minutes)[1]

Backup life support: 30 minutes[1]

Enhanced EMU[edit]

Manufacturer: ILC Dover (suit), Hamilton Standard (primary life support systems) and NASA (SAFER)[1]

Missions: 1998 to present[1]

Function: orbital extra-vehicular activity[1]

Operating pressure: 4.3 psi (29.6 kPa)[1]

EVA suit weight: 122 lb (55.3 kg)[1]

Total shuttle EVA suit weight: 275 lb (124.7 kg)[1]

Total ISS EVA suit weight: 319 lb (145 kg)[1]

Primary life support: 8 hours (480 minutes)[1]

Backup life support: 30 minutes[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extravehicular_Mobility_Unit

 

Here is a real good video on the pioneering work of the EMU for the Shuttle and Space Station Freedom...Now ISS..

 

 

We will cover suits and EVA's off and on in other topics but the above gives a basic understanding and the below infographic covers the individual components....

 

post-546174-0-58332500-1433291333.jpg

 

We will cover new suit designs as well as the new NASA Z-2, for exploration...

 

First, this one didn't make it (AX-5, 1988)....the guy who throws tires...mmmm

 

post-546174-0-31032400-1433291584.jpg

 

This one made it...The new Nasa Z2

 

 

 

In 2014, NASA unveiled the winner in a contest, open to the public, to select the appearance of the outer covering of the Z-2 next-generation spacesuit. The winning design, nicknamed "Technology," sports electroluminescent stripes (right) for better visibility in darkness.

http://www.space.com/25708-how-nasa-z2-spacesuit-works-infographic.html

 

post-546174-0-62100900-1433291807.jpg

 

mmmmmmm.....Buzz Lightyear..........de-winged

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Unobscured Vision    2,678

Crashing them would disperse their most valuable resource: volatiles, including methane and water. It's easier to place a small asteroid inside of a kevlar bag, heat it (solar concentrator) and collect the boiled off vapors for separation and use. One "dry" extract carbon (chondrites are loaded with it), silicates and metals robotically.

For large asteroids crashing them on the Moon runs the risk of a large chunk being tossed at Earth and causing damage.

 

Retrieval back to either an Earth-based or Lunar-based processing facility using large-ish Ships seems to be the only option for keeping the local Space Environment clear. It's either this, or building a Mining outpost far enough away from Earth where such activities won't cause additional problems.

 

And wow @ DD's Spacesuits post. It showed up while I was typing this.  (Y)

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Draggendrop    5,747

Ooooooops....forgot the Russian Orlan suit specs...

 

 

 

The Orlan space suit (Russian????? meaning sea eagle) is a series of semi-rigid one-piece space suit models designed and built by NPP Zvezda. They have been used for spacewalks (EVAs) in the Russian space program, the successor to the Soviet space program, and by space programs of other countries, including NASAA variant of the Orlan Spacesuit is used by the Chinese Space Program.[1][2][3]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlan_space_suit

 

Specs...

 

 

 

MK model[edit]
80px-Orlan-MK-MAKS2009.jpg
 
Orlan-MK
  • Name: Orlan-MK
  • Manufacturer: NPP Zvezda
  • Missions: Used on ISS. Used from 2009-present.[12]
  • Function: Extra-vehicular activity (EVA)
  • Operating Pressure: 5.8 psi (400 hPa)
  • Suit Weight: 265 lb (120 kg)[12]
  • Primary Life Support: 7 hours
MKS model[edit]
  • Name: Orlan-MKS
  • Manufacturer: NPP Zvezda
  • Missions: To be used on ISS. And to possibly be introduced in 2015.[12]
  • Function: Extra-vehicular activity (EVA)
  • Operating Pressure: 5.8 psi (400 hPa)
  • Primary Life Support: 7 hours

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlan_space_suit

 

 

And most importantly......

 

 

 

SpaceX spacesuit

As of February 2015, SpaceX is developing a spacesuit for use by private astronauts to use in the Dragon V2 space capsule.[27]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_suit

 

 

I really want SpaceX's new suit to be like this....please...please...please.... :woot:

post-546174-0-40810600-1433293786.jpg

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DocM    16,615

NASA has of course required that Commercial Crew flight suits must be pressurized.

Boeing is to reveal there's this summer. Odds are it'll be conventional, perhaps similar to Orbital Outfitters IS3 proposal

SpaceX hasn't announced theirs yet either, but given their history conventional would likely not be where they go.

IS3

OD-BE188_SPACE_EV_20141023122718.jpg

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Draggendrop    5,747

Retrieval back to either an Earth-based or Lunar-based processing facility using large-ish Ships seems to be the only option for keeping the local Space Environment clear. It's either this, or building a Mining outpost far enough away from Earth where such activities won't cause additional problems.

 

And wow @ DD's Spacesuits post. It showed up while I was typing this.  (Y)

USCSS Nostromo...

 

post-546174-0-55314300-1433296072.jpg

 

post-546174-0-83825800-1433296113.jpg

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