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Samsung discovers new material for semiconductors
by Paul Hill
Samsung has announced the joint discovery of a new material called amorphous boron nitride (a-BN). Its researchers at the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) worked with the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) and the University of Cambridge to make the discovery. The collaborators published their findings in the Nature journal and believe that the material will “accelerate the advent of the next generation of semiconductors.”
Explaining the newly discovered amorphous boron nitride, Samsung said it consists of boron and nitrogen atoms with an amorphous molecule structure. The Korean firm said that the new material is derived from white graphene but that the different molecular structure makes a-BN “uniquely distinctive” from white graphene.
Samsung said that a-BN is expected to be widely used in DRAM and NAND solutions because it’s able to minimise electrical interference and can be grown on a wafer-scale at a relatively low temperature of 400°C.
Commenting on the material, Hyeon-Jin Shin, a graphene project leader and Principal Researcher at SAIT, said:
The firm didn’t give a date on when it hopes to start using the new material in its hardware products but did say that it would be applied to semiconductors, especially DRAM and NAND solution, in next-gen memory solutions for large-scale servers.
By Steven P.
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by Steven Parker
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So basically I need help, I just built a pc, however when I press the power button everything in the pc begins to work. However the gpu spins for like 3 seconds and then just stops,is the card broken, or have I done something wrong?
I have Aorus Master X570 with Ryzen 9 3950X and separate graphics card (ASROCK Radeon RX 5500 XT Challenger D 8G in PCIe 4 16x slot)
I have installed 4x 32GB DDR4 corsair modules (VENGEANCE RGB PRO 64GB (2 x 32GB) DDR4 DRAM 3000MHz C15 Memory Kit) to it which makes 128 GB in total.
I have the latest BIOS (F11).
However I'm not able to use all 128 GB. My system only has ~126GB available, more than 2GB are reserved.
Is there some setting in BIOS i need to change to have the full capacity or RAM available? Is this somehow pre-allocated for some internal graphics (some ryzen do have internal GPU).
I'm using Linux (Kubuntu 20.04), here are the outputs from some relevant commands:
root:~# dmesg | grep emory:
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x00000000-0x00000fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x000a0000-0x000fffff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x09e02000-0x09ffffff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x0a200000-0x0a20bfff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xd733b000-0xd733bfff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xd7353000-0xd7353fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xd7354000-0xd7354fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xd7361000-0xd7361fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xd73a8000-0xd73a8fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xd73b9000-0xd73b9fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xd7b73000-0xd7bc9fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xda343000-0xda343fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xdb75d000-0xdb993fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xdbb1c000-0xdbf49fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xdbf4a000-0xdcc08fff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xdf000000-0xdfffffff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xe0000000-0xf7ffffff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xf8000000-0xfbffffff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfc000000-0xfcffffff]
[ 0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfd000000-0xffffffff]
[ 0.000000] Memory: 131679596K/134165956K available (14339K kernel code, 2397K rwdata, 4948K rodata, 2712K init, 4992K bss, 2486360K reserved, 0K cma-reserved)
[ 0.004807] Freeing SMP alternatives memory: 40K
[ 1.915340] Freeing initrd memory: 78264K
[ 1.971224] Freeing unused decrypted memory: 2040K
[ 1.971517] Freeing unused kernel image memory: 2712K
[ 1.996566] Freeing unused kernel image memory: 2008K
[ 1.996767] Freeing unused kernel image memory: 1196K
[ 2.135665] [TTM] Zone kernel: Available graphics memory: 65968864 KiB
[ 2.135665] [TTM] Zone dma32: Available graphics memory: 2097152 KiB
total used free shared buff/cache available
Mem: 131937728 18223112 80158388 543632 33556228 111930044
Swap: 0 0 0
root:~# cat /proc/meminfo
MemTotal: 131937728 kB
MemFree: 80066760 kB
MemAvailable: 111855496 kB
Buffers: 598632 kB
Cached: 32510864 kB
SwapCached: 0 kB
Active: 19166560 kB
Inactive: 30586972 kB
Active(anon): 16643144 kB
Inactive(anon): 547712 kB
Active(file): 2523416 kB
Inactive(file): 30039260 kB
Unevictable: 0 kB
Mlocked: 0 kB
SwapTotal: 0 kB
SwapFree: 0 kB
Dirty: 328 kB
Writeback: 0 kB
AnonPages: 16644420 kB
Mapped: 849300 kB
Shmem: 552780 kB
KReclaimable: 472920 kB
Slab: 783896 kB
SReclaimable: 472920 kB
SUnreclaim: 310976 kB
KernelStack: 36304 kB
PageTables: 89220 kB
NFS_Unstable: 0 kB
Bounce: 0 kB
WritebackTmp: 0 kB
CommitLimit: 65968864 kB
Committed_AS: 130765020 kB
VmallocTotal: 34359738367 kB
VmallocUsed: 58688 kB
VmallocChunk: 0 kB
Percpu: 33536 kB
HardwareCorrupted: 0 kB
AnonHugePages: 0 kB
ShmemHugePages: 0 kB
ShmemPmdMapped: 0 kB
FileHugePages: 0 kB
FilePmdMapped: 0 kB
CmaTotal: 0 kB
CmaFree: 0 kB
Hugepagesize: 2048 kB
Hugetlb: 0 kB
DirectMap4k: 1613640 kB
DirectMap2M: 17209344 kB
DirectMap1G: 116391936 kB
I executed memtest couple of times and the modules seems to be working fine. Also lshw shows correct parameters for them.
My motherbord: https://www.gigabyte.com/Motherboard/X570-AORUS-MASTER-rev-1x/support#support-dl-bios
My ram: https://www.corsair.com/us/en/Categories/Products/Memory/Vengeance-PRO-RGB-Black/p/CMW64GX4M2C3000C15
COVID-19 lockdown exposes digital poverty in the UK
by Paul Hill
With the on-going COVID-19 lockdown in the UK, children are being asked to do more work from home. Speaking to BBC, several people in education have highlighted the digital poverty that exists in areas of the country and is currently being amplified due to the circumstances. According to Wayne Norrie, chief executive of Greenwood Academies Trust, many families depend upon a single internet-connected phone which is not really suitable for online learning and streaming educational videos.
While there are already projects in the country, such as Get Online At Home, where people can buy low-cost computers with a further discount for the worst off, there are still a lot of children without access to a computer. In order to assist more families, the UK government does have plans in place to lend laptops to Year 10 kids that don’t have access to a computer, a 4G hotspot device will also help them get online.
Matt Morden, a co-head teacher at Surrey Square primary school in London, said that 24% of his pupils are offline. He said that while some do have mobile phones with an internet connection which could be used for tethering, their data plan is prohibitive and make homeschooling unrealistic. While the government is now helping some students get online, the measure is only temporary.
In terms of getting educational resources to those offline, it has been suggested that content could be aired on television. It’s not clear whether any schools are looking at the following suggestion but taking advantage of projects like Endless OS, where educational resources are stored locally on the device, could bypass the need for an internet connection.
Source: BBC News