Sounds like a strange situation that all your peripherals would cut out like that. I'm assuming your mouse has some metal on it which triggered you to discharge into it. And then your mouse must be wired, which sent the discharge into the USB port of your PC. It's definitively possible, I guess, but pretty unlucky.
Anyways, regarding static charge, it definitely can cause damage. It can sometimes cause things to burn out, but most of the time, the effects will be transparent. In most cases, static discharge will reduce the lifespan of the circuitry. Whether or not that makes any noticeable difference depends on the lifespan of those components in the first place.
To answer your question. As long as everything works, you should be fine. Just be more careful.
If you have big issues with being staticy all the time, you can get a dehumidifier and it will pretty much solve the problem. Or find something else metal to discharge yourself with.