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At least in mice, so human studies are probably warranted.

http://www.technologyreview.com/news/509896/transplanted-gut-bugs-protect-mice-from-diabetes/

[quote][b]Transplanted Gut Bugs Protect Mice from Diabetes[/b]

By exposing female mice to the gut bacteria of a healthy adult male, researchers were able to prevent the females from developing type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder. The study, published in Science on Thursday, also shows that the treatment changed the levels of testosterone in female mice, which typically develop type 1 diabetes at a higher rate than their male counterparts.

The females of the strain of mice used in the study have a 90 percent chance of developing diabetes, says senior author Jayne Danska, an immunologist and geneticist at the Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto. But by transferring the normal bacteria from the intestines of adult male mice to young female mice, the researchers were able to reduce the rate of disease to 25 percent. The changes in testosterone levels in the female mice did not reach typical male levels, but the authors show that only with active testosterone signaling did the female mice gain protection against diabetes, demonstrating that the microbe-induced increase in testosterone was critical to changing their disease rate.

Researchers are increasingly cataloging the microbes in our body (see

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