International Space Station (Updates)

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Space mentioned in the last post, I'll do a quick blurb here.....which will make it easier to see who retains responsibility for "space junk" as well as other parameters pertaining to the environment.    WARNING..."Do Not Operate Heavy Equipment While Reading This".


I will use "wiki's" to highlight the contents and point to the "real mess'.


Space Law



Space law is an area of the law that encompasses national and international law governing activities in outer space. International lawyers have been unable to agree on a uniform definition of the term "outer space", although most lawyers agree that outer space generally begins at the lowest altitude above sea level at which objects can orbit the Earth, approximately 100 km (60 mi).

The inception of the field of space law began with the launch of the world's first artificial satellite by the Soviet Union in October 1957. Named Sputnik 1, the satellite was launched as part of the International Geophysical Year. Since that time, space law has evolved and assumed more importance as humankind has increasingly come to use and rely on space-based resources.


Beginning in 1957, nations began discussing systems to ensure the peaceful use of outer space.[1][2] Bilateral discussions between the United States and USSR in 1958 resulted in the presentation of issues to the UN for debate.[1][3][4] In 1959, the UN created the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS).[5] COPUOS in turn created two subcommittees, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and the Legal Subcommittee. The COPUOS Legal Subcommittee has been a primary forum for discussion and negotiation of international agreements relating to outer space.

The Main Treaties are.....



Five international treaties have been negotiated and drafted in the COPUOS:

The 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the "Outer Space Treaty").
The 1968 Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the "Rescue Agreement").
The 1972 Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (the "Liability Convention").
The 1975 Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the "Registration Convention").
The 1979 Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the "Moon Treaty").


#1) Outer Space Treaty



The Outer Space Treaty represents the basic legal framework of international space law. Among its principles, it bars states party to the treaty from placing weapons of mass destruction in orbit of Earth, installing them on the Moon or any other celestial body, or to otherwise station them in outer space. It exclusively limits the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes and expressly prohibits their use for testing weapons of any kind, conducting military maneuvers, or establishing military bases, installations, and fortifications (Art.IV). However, the Treaty does not prohibit the placement of conventional weapons in orbit. The treaty also states that the exploration of outer space shall be done to benefit all countries and shall be free for exploration and use by all the States.

The treaty explicitly forbids any government from claiming a celestial resource such as the Moon or a planet, claiming that they are the common heritage of mankind.[3] Art. II of the Treaty states that "outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means". However, the State that launches a space object retains jurisdiction and control over that object.[4] The State is also liable for damages caused by their space object.[5]


#2) Rescue Agreement



The Rescue Agreement requires that any state party that becomes aware that the personnel of a spacecraft are in distress must notify the launching authority and the Secretary General of the United Nations.

The Rescue Agreement essentially provides that any state that is a party to the agreement must provide all possible assistance to rescue the personnel of a spacecraft who have landed within that state's territory, whether because of an accident, distress, emergency, or unintended landing. If the distress occurs in an area that is beyond the territory of any nation, then any state party that is in a position to do so shall, if necessary, extend assistance in the search and rescue operation.


#3) Liability Convention


The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, also known as the Space Liability Convention, is a treaty from 1972 that expands on the liability rules created in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967. In 1978, the crash of the nuclear-powered Soviet satellite Cosmos 954 in Canadian territory led to the only claim filed under the Convention.[1] Skylab crashed in Western Australia the following year, and while there were no deaths, injuries, or significant damage, the shire of Esperance did fine the Government of the United States $400 for littering as a result of Skylab's crashing to earth over Australia. NASA never paid the debt.[2] The fine was paid in April 2009, when radio show host Scott Barley of Highway Radio raised the funds from his morning show listeners and paid the fine on behalf of NASA.[3]


States (countries) bear international responsibility for all space objects that are launched within their territory. This means that regardless of who launches the space object, if it was launched from State A's territory, or from State A's facility, or if State A caused the launch to happen, then State A is fully liable for damages that result from that space object.


#4) Registration Convention



The Convention on Registration of Launched Objects into Outer Space (Registration Convention) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1974[1][2] and went into force in 1976. As of 2014, it has been ratified by 62 states.[3]

The convention requires states to furnish to the United Nations with details about the orbit of each space object. A registry of launchings was already being maintained by the United Nations as a result of a General Assembly Resolution in 1962.[4][5]

The Registration Convention and four other space law treaties are administered by the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.[inconsistent]

The European Space Agency and European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites have submitted declarations of acceptance of rights and obligations according to the convention.[6]


#5) Moon Treaty



As a follow-on to the Outer Space Treaty, the Moon Treaty intended to establish a regime for the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies similar to the one established for the sea floor in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The treaty would apply to the Moon and to other celestial bodies within the Solar System, other than Earth, including orbits around or other trajectories to or around them.[citation needed]

The treaty makes a declaration that the Moon should be used for the benefit of all states and all peoples of the international community. It also expresses a desire to prevent the Moon from becoming a source of international conflict. To those ends the treaty does the following:[citation needed]

Bans any military use of celestial bodies, including weapon testing or as military bases.
Bans all exploration and uses of celestial bodies without the approval or benefit of other states under the common heritage of mankind principle (article 11).
Requires that the Secretary-General must be notified of all celestial activities (and discoveries developed thanks to those activities).
Declares all states have an equal right to conduct research on celestial bodies.
Declares that for any samples obtained during research activities, the state that obtained them must consider making part of it available to all countries/scientific communities for research.
Bans altering the environment of celestial bodies and requires that states must take measures to prevent accidental contamination.
Bans any state from claiming sovereignty over any territory of celestial bodies.
Bans any ownership of any extraterrestrial property by any organization or person, unless that organization is international and governmental.
Requires all resource extraction and allocation be made by an international regime.

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In addition to the above...ancillary agreements such as.....

Charter Of The United Nations...which applies to above treaties in various modes.....


Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty



It is officially known as the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water, but is often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT)
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Here is the main legal problem with space a nut shell....



Addressing the issue of space debris is two-fold. First, there is mitigation, which through practices by space-faring nations such the space debris mitigation guidelines promulgated by the UN.1 These guidelines are not binding upon member states of the UN and only a few of the spacefaring nations have implemented them as mandatory requirements into their space programs. However, remediation or removal of existing space debris is another matter, and the methodologies of which are still in its infancy and face substantial technical, financial and political hurdles. Additionally, space debris remediation also faces major legal issues. The purpose of this essay is to attempt to identify and briefly discuss some of those legal challenges and their potential solutions, including a definition of space debris that could facilitate space debris remediation. This essay is should not be considered and exhaustive discussion on the topic.


The most prominent issue surrounding cleanup of orbital space debris rests with Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty, in which space objects, including nonfunctioning satellites and other space debris, continue to belong to the country or countries that launched them.2 There is no right of salvage analogous to the right found in maritime law, which means that even though a satellite or some other space object may not be functioning, it does not imply that it has been abandoned by the nation that launched it. Without consent from the nation that launched and operates or otherwise owns the satellite or space object, it cannot be disposed of or otherwise interfered with. This is further complicated by the fact that international space law deems fragments and components from space objects as individual space objects in and of themselves, which would require identification to determine the owner and either individual or blanket consent to remove it from orbit.


Who "owns" what...





The number of debris particles in orbit is a concern since if these particles collide with a satellite they can damage or destroy it.

The plot on the right shows that the US and Russia together own more than 85% of the debris mass in LEO, while China owns a small slice. This is because these two countries have many more large-mass objects in orbit, like defunct satellites and the rocket stages used to put them in orbit.

These large-mass objects are a concern because they are the potential sources of large amounts of debris in the future, since in a collision these objects could fragment into enormous clouds of debris.


Yes...we have some issues for all to agree on....Cheers..... :)

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After the above "dry" stuff.......time for weird and wacky space video's


School experiment on the ISS


Pop a water balloon on the ISS......


Drinking from a "cup" on the ISS.....


Will a gun fire in space......


Cheers..... :)

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After the above lengthy guessed it....more satellites going up.......






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NASA ISS On Orbit Status for 24 June 2015






The International Space Station will see two new spacecraft over six days beginning June 30. Three orbiting residents are preparing for the new arrivals with training on a pair of different rendezvous and approach systems.

SpaceX CRS-7 will launch Sunday at 10:21 a.m. EDT. The SpaceX Dragon cargo craft will arrive Tuesday morning to be captured by the Canadarm2 at approximately 8 a.m. The next Russian resupply mission, ISS Progress 60, is due for launch early July 3rd and dock to the Pirs docking compartment two days later.

Commander Gennady Padalka and fellow cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko refreshed their skills on the telerobotically-operated rendezvous system, also known as the TORU, located in the Zvezda service module. If necessary a crew member could use the TORU to manually dock an approaching Progress cargo craft in case of an emergency.

One-Year crew member and NASA astronaut Scott Kelly later partnered up with Padalka for more training on the robotics system that will be used to capture Dragon next week. Kelly will be at the controls of the Canadarm2 inside the cupola when Dragon arrives while Padalka monitors systems and backs him up.




Ground Activities
All activities were completed unless otherwise noted.

OBT Dragon RoBOT
N2 Distribution System Leak Check [in Work]
Three-Day Look Ahead:

Thursday, 06/25: Ocular Health, Dragon OBT RoBOT, Sprint
Friday, 06/26: Crew off duty
Saturday, 06/27: Housekeeping, Crew off duty
QUICK ISS Status - Environmental Control Group:

Component - Status
Elektron - On
Vozdukh - Manual
[???] 1 - SM Air Conditioner System ("SKV1") - On
[???] 2 - SM Air Conditioner System ("SKV2") - Off
Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) Lab - Standby
Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) Node 3 - Operate
Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) Lab - Shutdown
Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) Node 3 - Operate
Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) - Standby
Urine Processing Assembly (UPA) - Process
Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) Lab - Off
Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) Node 3 - Full Up


OneWeb LLC has raised the required equity to begin "constellation" launches...



The advantage for OneWeb is substantial. Its constellation of 648 satellites operating at 1,200 kilometers in Ku-band faces potential interference issues around the equator, and any interference would be resolved in favor of the established operators in geostationary orbit, like Intelsat.





WARSAW, Poland

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Light show captured by ISS ......



Throughout Canada and as far south as Philadelphia, the northern lights have been wowing skywatchers this week, and the colorful displays could continue, following another solar explosion spotted by NASA.

A large sun storm last weekend known as a coronal mass ejection (CME) sent high-energy particles streaming toward Earth, where their interaction with the atmosphere and the magnetic field supercharged the gorgeous color displays known in the northern hemisphere as the aurora borealis. The dazzling celestial show may go on, thanks to another CME detected by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) today (June 25).

Today's explosion came from a freckle on the sun's surface known as sunspot AR12371, which also erupted on Tuesday (June 23). The particles blasted into space by Earth-directed CMEs usually reach our planet after one to five days, so auroras amped up by the latest solar storm could appear this weekend






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A few posts back, Space law and associated governmental doctrines were briefly touched on. Ambiguity exists with what we can and can't due with "items" in orbit. There are a few things we know reasonably well to argue....


1) The country of launch bears all responsibility for the "craft", including liability.

2) General rule of thumb is 25 year de-orbit


A lot can happen before, during and after launch and prudence generally dictates "insurance" when large outlays of worth are involved.





Satellite risk coverage is insurance against damage to the satellite itself. There are four basic types of coverage available in this section.

Pre-launch insurance provides coverage for loss or damage to satellite or its components from the time they leave the manufacturer's premises, during the transit to the launch site, through testing, fueling, and integration with the launcher up until the time the launcher's rocket engines are ignited for the purpose of the actual launch.
Launch insurance provides coverage for the period from the intentional ignition of the engines until the satellite separates from the final stage of the launch vehicle, or it may continue until completion of the testing phase in orbit. Typical coverage usually runs for a period of twelve months but is limited to 45


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Hot off the NEOWIN NEWS Press....


Microsoft is sending Hololens to the ISS.........This is neat.......

Which means it will be on SpaceX CRS-7 Resupply mission launching on Sunday, 28 June 2015






Microsoft's augmented realty device, Hololens, has grabbed the attention of consumers around the world and now NASA is about send two of the devices up to the space station. The two organizations are working on a project called 'Sidekick' to use the technology to allow astronauts to work more efficiently at the International Space station.

The idea is quite simple, currently, an astronaut has to rely on written and voice instructions when receiving help from NASA back on Earth. With Hololens, the astronaut can wear the headset and receive instructions from back home with holograms appearing in front of them to complete a task, which requires no interpretation, unlike the currently used notes setup.

Microsoft has already shown off this idea and when we first got to demo Hololens back in January; we used Skype as the medium for having someone help us repair a drain pipe. Microsoft and NASA are going to use this same style of setup to help astronauts in space which gives them the benefit of not having to carry paper to compete a task. More so, with an additional set of eyes watching the task being completed, NASA will have greater insight into the process along with the ability to help out.



The Hololens will have two modes when it arrives at the space station; Remote Expert mode and Procedure mode. The Remote Expert mode uses Skype to provide real-time guidance and draw annotations with holograms and the Procedure mode augments standalone tasks with holograms on top of the objects with which the crew is interacting.

This collaboration between NASA and Microsoft will be an important step for Hololens as Microsoft works to show that the device has real-world testing under its belt and that it truly is a tool for productivity.


NASA Testing Project "Sidekick" on the "barf express"


Cheers....... :D

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SpaceX CRS-7 to deliver the IDA-1, International Docking Adapter #1, which will be used for docking commercial crew vehicles. SpaceX CRS-9 will deliver IDA-2 in December 2015.





Alongside this pressurized cargo, perhaps the most visible payload aboard CRS-7 is NASA

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Bioserve Space Technologies will be sending 2 experiments to the ISS on board CRS-7 this Sunday.




A University of Colorado Boulder space center will fly high-tech hardware on the commercial SpaceX Dragon spacecraft launching to the International Space Station Sunday, the 50th space mission flown by BioServe Space Technologies since it was founded by NASA in 1987.





"We are excited to be flying once again on the SpaceX Dragon to the International Space Station," said BioServe Business Development Manager and Education Program Director Stefanie Countryman. "We have partnered with SpaceX now on seven missions, and we feel that biomedical experiments like the ones we are flying have the potential to have a positive health impact for both spacefarers and people on Earth."





One experiment on the upcoming SpaceX mission is designed to better understand cell biology by charting the behavior of yeast cell cultures in microgravity. Because multicellular yeast colonies are similar to mammalian cell tumors, researchers hope to identify biological factors that may contribute to understanding health risks for human space crews and tumor behavior that could eventually benefit patients on Earth.





A second experiment involving BioServe hardware, being led by Allessandro Grattoni of the Houston Methodist Hospital Research Institute in Texas, is designed to help researchers better understand the mechanisms of molecular transport across tiny membrane channels. Such experiments will help scientists learn more about the release of molecules and drugs from human implants that someday could be used to treat a variety of diseases on Earth.  This experiment is sponsored through the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space or CASIS, which focuses on utilizing the Space Station as a National Lab.


Cheers....... :)

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NASA has scheduled another undersea training exercise (#20) on NEEMO for July 20th, 2015




NEEMO 20 will focus on evaluating tools and techniques being tested for future spacewalks on a variety of surfaces and gravity levels ranging from asteroids to the moons of Mars and the Martian surface.

"The NEEMO team is particularly excited about this mission as it is a huge milestone to have achieved 20 missions at Aquarius over the past 15 years," NEEMO Project Lead Bill Todd said. "Living and working in the highly operational, isolated and extreme environment of the aquatic realm has provided significant science and engineering for the benefit of human spaceflight. It has also clearly proven to be as close to spaceflight as is possible here on Earth."

The mission will test time delays in communications due to the distance of potential mission destinations. The crew also will assess hardware sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA) that allows crew members to read the next step in a procedure without taking their hands or eyes away from the task using a tablet, a smartphone and a head-mounted interface.

ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano will command the NEEMO 20 mission aboard the Aquarius laboratory. Parmitano flew in space during Expeditions 36 and 37 aboard the International Space Station in 2013, where he spent 166 days living and working in the extreme environment of microgravity. He conducted two spacewalks on his first spaceflight.

Parmitano will be joined by NASA astronaut Serena Aunon, NASA EVA Management Office engineer David Coan and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Norishige Kanai.

The NEEMO crew and two professional habitat technicians will live 62 feet (19 meters) below the surface of the Atlantic Ocean in Florida International University's Aquarius Reef Base undersea research habitat 6.2 miles (5.4 nautical miles) off the coast of Key Largo, Florida.,1,2,3,4,5,6,15,17,34








Pictures courtesy of NASA


post-546174-0-59268300-1435340055.jpg        Cheers... :D

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Potable water supply on ISS has elevated TOC (Total Organic Carbon)...could just be a recheck or a small algae buildup...checks to follow...




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Good thing Dragon was recently outfitted with large water tanks.

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ISS station supplies are at a good level still despite loss....






Managers in charge of International Space Station say the massive orbiting laboratory and its residents can keep going despite Sunday




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Listing of lost supplies on CRS-7




NASA released a full listing of the cargo aboard the failed mission:

Crew Supplies

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ISS Crew member, Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka breaks space record....




Veteran Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, more than three months into his fifth trip into orbit, has passed countryman Sergey Krikalev



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With Gennady's record, comes health risks as well.......




This damage occurs despite the fact that astronauts take part in up to two hours of exercise on the ISS each day, leading to significant issues once back on Earth. As a result, astronauts typically have to undergo a rigorous rehabilitation programm to help them stand up straight again.





Travelling to space also affects astronauts' skeletons significantly. As gravity is not pulling them downwards, their spines lengthen up to as much as a few inches over the course of a long-duration mission to the ISS. This increase in the length of the spine is due to an increased volume of fluid in the spinal discs
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The HTV (Japan's) cargo carrier launch date may be moved up to help the ISS...



The Aug. 16 launch date for a Japanese HTV supply ship could be shifted to give NASA time to add time-critical cargo to the mission, Suffredini said. No such decision has been made, but Suffredini told reporters Sunday to expect adjustments in upcoming logistics missions.


File photo of HTV...




Side note......

A spare IDA was made as well, so 2 will get up to the ISS for commercial crew missions.....

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Scott Kelly will also set a few US astronaut records upon completion of the one year mission.



Kelly will become the most-experienced U.S. astronaut by the end of the flight, establishing new records for cumulative time in space by an American and the longest single spaceflight by a NASA crew member. Scientists will study how Kelly and Kornienko respond to prolonged exposure to microgravity to help prepare for future voyages into the solar system.


Scott Kelly is at bottom left....



Scott Kelly NASA bio....


Launched 27 March 2016 with expedition 43


Will return March 2016 on expedition 46



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Threads Merged - a month seems a bit quick to be creating a new topic on the same topic. Please try to keep new threads tied to new missions or major updates with a decent amount of time between.

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/s......are we back on the mic again).......


ISS Progress 60 Launch Flawless......well done.......I was able to watch the full launch at NASA TV........very smooth






Carrying more than 6,100 pounds of food, fuel, and supplies for the International Space Station crew, the unpiloted ISS Progress 60 cargo craft launched at 12:55 a.m. EDT (10:55 p.m. local time in Baikonur) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.

At the time of launch, the International Space Station was flying about 249 miles over northwestern Sudan, near the border with Egypt and Libya.

Less than 10 minutes after launch, the resupply ship reached preliminary orbit and deployed its solar arrays and navigational antennas as planned. The Russian cargo craft will make 34 orbits of Earth during the next two days before docking to the orbiting laboratory at 3:13 a.m. Sunday, July 5.

Beginning at 2:30 a.m. Sunday, July 5, NASA Television will provide live coverage of Progress 60

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Black Hole at V404 Cygnus reawakens for a bit....sensors caught it after NASA's Swift sat (ESA sensor) picked it up.....






NASA's Swift satellite detected a rising tide of high-energy X-rays from the constellation Cygnus on June 15, just before 2:32 p.m. EDT. About 10 minutes later, the Japanese experiment on the International Space Station called the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) also picked up the flare.

The outburst came from V404 Cygni, a binary system located about 8,000 light-years away that contains a black hole. Every couple of decades the black hole fires up in an outburst of high-energy light, becoming an X-ray nova. Until the Swift detection, it had been slumbering since 1989.

An X-ray nova is a bright, short-lived X-ray source that reaches peak intensity in a few days and then fades out over a period of weeks or months. The outburst occurs when stored gas abruptly rushes toward a neutron star or black hole. By studying the patterns of the X-rays produced, astronomers can determine the kind of object at the heart of the eruption.

"Relative to the lifetime of space observatories, these black hole eruptions are quite rare," said Neil Gehrels, Swift's principal investigator at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "So when we see one of them flare up, we try to throw everything we have at it, monitoring across the spectrum, from radio waves to gamma rays."


Data from ESA's integral gamma ray observatory...






U-tube video.....

Utube video's not showing up in the thread now...will have to check this out...use the link for now...Cheers...

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Another satellite constellation going up...This one is Spire's.....








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New German Space Radar System for tracking debris set for 2018...




Space debris poses a growing threat to satellites and other spacecraft, which could be damaged in the event of a collision. A new German space surveillance system, schedu- led to go into operation in 2018, will help to prevent such incidents. The tracking radar is being developed by Fraunhofer researchers on behalf of DLR Space Administration.

Read more at:




The FHR researchers are no newcomers when it comes to building radar systems. Their TIRA (Tracking and Imaging Radar) system is already being used to track objects in space. "TIRA collects high-definition images of individual objects using a mechanically controlled, movable antenna. The novel feature of the new GESTRA system is that its antenna is electronically controlled, and can therefore be reoriented even faster because it has no heavy moving parts. Unlike TIRA, it is capable of observing a very large number of objects simultaneously while still supplying data of high accuracy and sensitivity," says Brenner.


4th of July 2015 on ISS






Orbiting NASA astronaut Scott Kelly doesn't have any special plans for the Fourth of July, though he will try to catch a glimpse of the fireworks displays down on Earth.

"Hopefully the timing will be right, and I'll be able to look down and see little specks of light over the United States on the evening of the Fourth of July," Kelly said Thursday (July 2) during a video interview with NASA spokesman Dan Huot of Johnson Space Center in Houston. "We'll have to see how the orbital mechanics and such works out."


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