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International Space Station (Updates)

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Unobscured Vision    2,678

This topic is so full of win it's almost unbearable .. and yes, that's a good thing. :yes:

 

Thanks for making an otherwise rough day better, folks.

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Draggendrop    5,747

This topic is so full of win it's almost unbearable .. and yes, that's a good thing. :yes:

 

Thanks for making an otherwise rough day better, folks.

I was waiting for you to show up....I'm still laughing at the "food replicator"...Cheers... :)

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Draggendrop    5,747

Now that we are on the 3D printer on the ISS, here are a few links to explain the process taken. The ratchet wrench is great and the possibilities are numerous. In the future, I can see the ISS or an exploration craft having a workshop with a variety of printing compounds....

 

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/3Dratchet_wrench

 

http://www.iflscience.com/space/how-nasa-emailed-wrench-space

 

and the 3D espresso cup...nice...

 

http://3dprint.com/62744/3d-print-espresso-iss-nasa/

 

SpaceX Dragon has already brought back the first tools for analysis and ESA is testing a 3D printer to send up as well...

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DocM    16,611

That's a polymer 3D printer. ESA is working on a metal printer, which could manufacture all manner of parts & tools.

The 3D printing field is moving so bloody fast, SpaceX is printing engine parts and cryogenic valves, I'm certain ISS will have more than a few upgrades.

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Draggendrop    5,747

There is quite the interest in 3D food printing. There are presently several manufacturers producing units capable of "printing" cakes, cookies and crackers, to name a few. NASA has an interest as well and have sponsored a firm from Austin, Texas,to explore capabilities for it's use in space. The link below describes the venture funding....

 

http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/home/feature_3d_food_prt.htm

 

and as a future example of ISS cuisine.....3D pizza....

 

http://news.nationalpost.com/appetizer/3d-food-printers-hit-kitchens-and-restaurants-as-technology-and-edible-ingredients-combine-to-create-everything-from-cake-toppers-to-pizzas

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Draggendrop    5,747

That's a polymer 3D printer. ESA is working on a metal printer, which could manufacture all manner of parts & tools.

The 3D printing field is moving so bloody fast, SpaceX is printing engine parts and cryogenic valves, I'm certain ISS will have more than a few upgrades.

I had no idea that ESA's printer was to be a "metal" variant.......things are flying....thought I would put this example of SpaceX printing here as an example..

A printed SpaceX Super Draco engine....

 

post-546174-0-71469200-1432937731.jpg

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Draggendrop    5,747

Here is a diagram of the ISS for perspective...(not up to date, will keep looking)

 

post-546174-0-61707800-1432968939.jpg

 

And here is a breakdown of assemblies...(not up to date, will keep looking)

 

post-546174-0-12151900-1432969084.png

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Draggendrop    5,747

Now it's ISS tour time...these video's take you through 4 groups of modules and are narrated by crew members,,,gives you a good idea of the confines..

 

Harmony,Tranquility and Unity

 

Destiny, Columbus and Kibo

 

Cupola and Leonardo

 

Zarya and Zvezda

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FloatingFatMan    18,811

Well, if we're showing vids from the ISS, keep hold of your socks, coz this one might blow them off! :p

 

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Draggendrop    5,747

Well, if we're showing vids from the ISS, keep hold of your socks, coz this one might blow them off! :p

 

Excellent...One of the best compilations I have seen......What a visual to watch being up there as well.......Cheers :)

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Arachno 1D    7,992

Good videos and very informative it realy brings stuff into perspective and what we take for granted.I was reading Chris Hadfields book a while ago and didnt realise until he described it that it takes over two hours to prepare and don a space suit for every space walk they do.In one section of the book he explained how some fluid from the pre cleaning they need to do on the visor had not been wiped off properly and after a while outside it had come free in his helmet temporarily blinding him.As you cant wipe your eyes in space like on land he was visually incappacitated but luckily they use a buddy system and his partner managed to get Chris back into the module safely with no ill effects.

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Draggendrop    5,747

Still been trying to get a good diagram with all modules and assembly names.....best is 2011 so far, so I found some newer illustrations of the ISS and its size.

 

 

International Space Station at Completion

  • The ISS solar array surface area could cover the U.S. Senate Chamber three times over.
  • ISS is larger than a six-bedroom house.
  • ISS has an internal pressurized volume of 32,333 cubic feet, or equal that of a Boeing 747.

     

  • The solar array wingspan (240 feet) is longer than that of a Boeing 777 200/300 model, which is 212 feet.
  • Fifty-two computers control the systems on the ISS.
  • More than 115 space flights were conducted on five different types of launch vehicles over the course of the station

    post-546174-0-67689400-1433003361.jpg

    post-546174-0-90374100-1433003478.jpg

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Draggendrop    5,747

The number of experiments carried out at the ISS is simply mind boggling...too numerous to list so I have included a link to NASA. The list is in alphabetical order with sub links....The crew have been "busy bee's"...(list as of 27 May 2015)

 

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/experiments_by_name.html

 

At this link from NASA, results of experiments so far, and published, are available for all to read....Later on in the thread, there will be a few chosen experiments displayed to see what you think....

 

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/results_category

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firey    3,988

Few more questions.. Did they send up parts pre-built? Or how did they do different sections.  Like take for example, the first video showing the bathroom.  Was it more or less assembled and just hooked up? Or was some guy in a space suit float around building the frame, and adding the door and such?

Also, have they done any reproduction experiments or is that too dangerous?

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DocM    16,611

Few more questions.. Did they send up parts pre-built? Or how did they do different sections. Like take for example, the first video showing the bathroom. Was it more or less assembled and just hooked up? Or was some guy in a space suit float around building the frame, and adding the door and such?

Prefabricated sections with loose gear stowed for on-orbit assembly or placement. The solar arrays and their supports were launched folded then mounted and opened. Most large modules went up in the Shuttle cargo bay, but that's not a necissity - they could have been launched on a rocket as many Russian segment and MIR modules were.

Also, have they done any reproduction experiments or is that too dangerous?

Small animal studies.

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Draggendrop    5,747

After watching so many sci-fi movies, I imagine some assume that if one was to be in space without a spacesuit, they would swell up and explode with their eye balls shooting out like snooker balls....well....not quite true...but it might apply to "aliens" :woot:  This would be a good time to dig into this so lets start with the environment of space...

 

1) Space is, for all intents, a vacuum. I once did an experiment and hooked up a vacuum pump to a steel barrel. As you probably guessed, it crumpled like a soda can. Vacuum power is to be appreciated. We on earth, live under an atmospheric pressure of approximately 14.7 psi at sea level, the weight of the atmosphere above us and our bodies are adapted to this.

 

2) Temperature variations in space are between approximately 250F(121C) in sunlight and -387F(-233C) in the absence of sunlight. We need temperature control for our bodies.

 

3) We require a gaseous mixture to breath. On earth, we have 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 13 others in small amounts. As a side note, many auto shops ask if you want nitrogen (100%) in your car tires. I usually answer that I prefer 78% and I always get a weird look... :D

 

4) On earth, we have the atmosphere and a magnetic shield to protect us from harmful cosmic radiation...not so in space.

 

Space is a hostile environment, and if suddenly exposed to it unprotected, to put it mildly, you will "black out" in approximately 15 seconds and you have approximately 1 to 2 minutes to have someone pull you into a safe environment, before you die. Simplistic answer but it is BAD and here is what happens..

 

1) Lack of oxygen and the vacuum causes the air to rush out of your lungs and they may explode if you had a deep breath prior. This is the black-out due to lack of oxygen occurring around 15 seconds in.

 

2) Lack of oxygen causes an ebullism, the lack of pressure causes body fluid to "approach" boiling point (your blood will not boil) and gases form which "bloat" the body to approximately twice the size as your skin acts like a containment system. Not a good "selfie" shot.

 

3) Not that it matters, but instant sunburn if you are in sunlight...require a very good sfp lotion  :D

 

4) Exposure to solar rays will begin to cause cell mutation. DNA damage that would cause cancers...if you survived a very short stint.

 

5) To add insult to injury, the vacuum will cause you to "dirty your pants".

 

In summary...you loose your breath, may explode your lungs, black out, heart can't pump blood, blurred vision, body expands to twice it's size, really bad sunburn along with mutated DNA and will die in a few minutes...and smell real bad.....not pleasant at all.

 

There are many articles and studies done by NASA but I put a few generic links for some perusing on the above data....

 

http://www.iflscience.com/space/what-would-happen-your-body-space-without-spacesuit

 

http://listverse.com/2013/07/06/10-things-that-happen-to-an-exposed-human-in-space/

 

http://www.businessinsider.com/what-happens-to-a-human-body-in-space-2015-3

 

 

Space suit discussion will be next...

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Arachno 1D    7,992

Doc mentioned something about issues with man-made garvity on the body in another thread so I was suprised when the design include a gravity ring?

 

17d68575c9c63b635e3a81062d57830d.jpg

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DocM    16,611

Doc mentioned something about issues with man-made garvity on the body in another thread so I was suprised when the design include a gravity ring?

A gravity centrifuge. You don't even need 1 G, indications are about .3 - .35 G is enough - a tad less than Mars gravity (3.711 G.)

If you want to play around with what centrifuge diameter, angular velocity etc. will give you a certain G, have a look at the SpinCalc online gravity calculator,

http://www.artificial-gravity.com/sw/SpinCalc/SpinCalc.htm

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Unobscured Vision    2,678

Ahh .. there's that smell again. Collective neurons operating at peak efficiency. *deep inhale*

 

Smells of motor oil, marshmallows, and rocket fuel. :D

 

Quite enjoyable. Proceed!

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Draggendrop    5,747

This is an edit to above post on the topic of an unprotected body in the vacuum of space. Had a "brain fart" and forgot to add data.

 

1) the ebullism would cause a reduction in blood flow. The loss of oxygen due to this as well as loss of oxygen in the lungs, would turn your skin blue.

 

2) The danger of freezing is not relevant as you would be dead. That being said, and depending on conditions, body core heat will reduce and it could take up to 18 hours to totally freeze. Heat loss (energy) in a vacuum is transmitted by electromagnetic radiation. Space can be treated as a container at a very low temperature in which body heat radiates to the cold container until equilibrium is achieved ( equilibrium time is modified also by the energy intake into your body from the sun). The universe is so vast that it's temperature increase from the introduction of your body temperature is statistically almost nil. We still have the 2nd law of thermodynamics which states entropy increases, therefore heat flows from a warm source to a cooler source. The distinction is that an expanding universe increases entropy at a faster rate than your body heat transferred energy. This can be thought of as an increase in chaos where too much expansion will appear to have removed all heat sources. Note. This  assumes that the immediate vicinity is void of molecular matter such as gases.

 

3) Absolute least worry...effects of disorientation. No reference for inner ear.

 

4) After all moisture loss (80% of the body), your body will be  frozen and mummified, with decomposition non existent until your body comes into contact with extremophiles (life forms in extreme environments).

 

5) micro meteroids...puts holes in your body.

 

End result...same as above...with the addition of a "blue dehydrated popsicle with possible holes and nibble marks"

 

wiki for thermodynamics...

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermodynamics

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Arachno 1D    7,992

In 2 above if you were in direct Sunlight would not that side of the body come under extreeme temperatures? [not that Id want ti either way] :D

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DocM    16,611

Roughly +123

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Draggendrop    5,747

In 2 above if you were in direct Sunlight would not that side of the body come under extreeme temperatures? [not that Id want ti either way] :D

 

This would be an answer for the energy displacement aspect of your question.Yes, you are quite right. First, you would get extreme sunburn. The body in a vacuum takes time to radiate the "net" heat that it has, at any given time. The net energy is the contained energy in the body, the received energy from the solar radiation and the loss due to the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The body also acts as a reflective source. The net is a win for entropy where the body will freeze by the removal off all heat energy, which is transferred to the vacuum of space but it will take many hours...no flash freezing...the cooling is from extremities to the core. Depending on alignment with the heat source, one side will be initially warmer than the non exposed side and it depends on the energy received vs dissipated. If you are close to the sun, you can't dissipate heat by electromagnetic radiation fast enough and you burn up. Extremely far away, it will take approximately 18 hours(very rough estimate) for equilibrium to be met with your surroundings. Now that said, there should be a point close to a heat source where intake and dissipation are at equilibrium. This paradox may only happen for a locked orbit where this condition is stable. This would not be the case for the majority of conditions. We have a mass void of moisture and gases which would make it more difficult to rapidly heat. In summary, heating and cooling of the mass will occur as it rotates upon itself as well as its position in orbit (light side or dark side). Is the mass receiving enough energy to counteract the natural dissipation of heat energy? At the space station, as it rotates around the earth, the body would heat and cool through this cycle, but with reflection of energy off the body, the core would be cold in my opinion.

 

I do not know if an experiment has been done with these variables and I will investigate. I am pretty sure that most of the energy will be reflected and what is left will cause heating but the cooling cycle would quickly overcome this. Best guess for ISS orbit would be cold body with heating and cooling offsetting for neutrality over an orbit. If you find a study before I do, please post...Thank's for wicked question.   

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flyingskippy    167

A gravity centrifuge. You don't even need 1 G, indications are about .3 - .35 G is enough - a tad less than Mars gravity (3.711 G.)

That would take some getting used to. Your feet would experience higher G's than your head.

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DocM    16,611

The gravity gradient between head and feet depends on the radius of the centrifuge, not the maximum G rate at its outer rim. A 10m centrifuge is more problematic that a 20, 50 or 100 meter one, making its usefulness limited to gravity "treatments" during sleep or rest periods.

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