Earlier this week, Microsoft released Windows 10 for PCs build 14393.82 to the Production ring. The package is missing a .MOF file, which breaks DSC (Desired State Configuration) in PowerShell. It also breaks the implicit remoting feature, which would allow users to work on a remote session instead of locally.
It's worth noting that KB3176934 was available in the Release Preview ring for four days prior to its non-Insider release, so Microsoft did have time to solve the problem before pushing it out.
This is certainly not the first time that a Windows 10 update has broken a major feature of the platform. It was reported last week that the Anniversary Update itself broke millions of webcams, an issue that still hasn't been fixed in the latest updates; and this week, simply plugging in a Kindle to a USB 3.0 port will cause Windows to crash with a blue screen error.
Of course, if you haven't yet installed the Anniversary Update on your PC, you're not experiencing any of the problems listed above. The simple fix for the PowerShell issues is to uninstall KB3176934, which you can do with the following PowerShell command:
wusa /uninstall /kb:3176934
If you want to stick it out, Microsoft is promising that the issue will be fixed in the next update to Windows 10, which is slated to arrive on August 30.