Since just before the weekend, it appears that some users have had issues with restarting their Surface Pro 3 properly with the latest Windows 10 Insider build 16288 installed, which got released to the Slow ring last Friday, only a few days after being released to Fast ring Insiders.
As you may recall, there was a totally unrelated issue with the same build not even being able to install, which got fixed within the 48 hours after release, meaning the actual test phase for the build was quite a bit shorter between Fast and Slow rings than we're used to seeing. This possibly resulted in the Surface Pro 3 issue not being caught.
In any case, Microsoft has now confirmed the issue, Dona Sarkar tweeted as much a few hours ago:
What is maybe a little less known however, is that it appears that Microsoft is pushing firmware updates out with the build updates, and that is most likely the culprit of this latest issue, because it seems to be affecting those in the Skip Ahead ring as well, which is a totally different build at 16362.
So far, the only workaround appears to be doing a "recovery" via USB key from an older build of Windows 10. Apparently, all of the repair options in builds 16288 and 16362 do not work on the Surface Pro 3. After you have been able to recover or boot to Windows 10, you can "roll back" a build, which then skips the problematic builds.